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Driven by the convergence of common needs in many application fields (healthcare, entertainment, security, transports, etc.) and availability of advanced embedded technologies, body sensor networks have gained a leading role in wearable computing. They are widespread used as enabling technology for smart environments designed around humans and which keep the human in the loop. Indeed they are evolving in devices that both sense and actuate with a pro-active role in handling data and in providing control actions to the users. At the moment, one of the main challenges is to guarantee adequate energy autonomy in particular when actuation is involved.

Energy efficiency for embedded systems is one of the main research challenges, particularly in last years where the pervasiveness of smart, tiny low cost electronics is enabling ambient intelligence scenarios. Wearables systems, mobile computing and  wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are typical examples of technologies that are gaining increasing attention from both the research community and actual users.